The genetic architecture of plant growth and development of cereal crops are greatly affected by abiotic stress conditions such as drought, salinity, and low temperature. Plants respond to these environmental challenges through a number of molecular and physiological mechanisms that alter the signal transduction pathways and expression of different genes. These stress inducible genes are altered in order to sustain under adverse climatic factors. Several regulatory of molecular and metabolic pathways that activate or repress the stress tolerance genes with the help of transcription factors and cis-acting elements in the stress-responsive promoters function for the plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Here, we summarize recent studies highlighting the role of stress signaling molecules and specific members of transcription factors and genes expression in the adaptive responses to abiotic stresses.