Physiological Adaptation of Animals to the Change of Environment: A Review

Research Article
*Aleme Asres and Negassie Amha
Physiological adaptation, homeotherm, and hyperthermia

Animals living in different ecologies of the world have for several decades and for every moment of the day developed means for coping their environment as a matter of survival. Consideration must be given to effects and adaptive mechanisms for different environmental change. The concept of fitness of farm animal extends from ability to survive now and withstand environmental demands in future, to ability to produce sufficiently to justify cost of domestication. Homeostasis, physiological, biological and genetic adaptations are concepts in understanding the means by which animal cope with their environment. The concept of energy balance forms the central pivot which tilts the environmental change in different directions for animal to respond. Effective responses of animals to environmental change often result in depressed productivity even in attempt to apply mechanisms to ward off the pervading change of environmental condition. The responsibility of the producer is to understand these concepts in the management of the stock for survival and higher productivity by controlling the overbearing influence of the environmental change. Mammals are not only able to survive in arid environments, but they are able to thrive due to a wide array of adaptations. These adaptations allow the mammals to maintain a balance between thermoregulation and water balance. Mammals use evaporative cooling techniques to maintain a constant body temperature, while at the same time they use behavioral adaptations to reduce heat load and water loss. Many mammals do not need to ingest water to survive. Instead, they get it from the food they eat. Nasal counterflow, concentrated urine, and dry faeces also reduce the amount of water an animal loses. All these adaptations and more, play an important role in the animal’s ability to conquer the change of environment.